Transporting crude oil has always presented unique fluid-handling challenges. For example, pipelines often traverse remote territory in harsh environments, which is why they require pumping solutions capable of performing reliably over many years with minimal maintenance.  Variations in temperature and crude oil grades, as well as contaminants such as sand or water, can increase the range of viscosities a pipeline must be able to accommodate. Additionally, the demand for increased energy efficiency… (to continue reading view the PDF)